CCD as Foundation Elements of FEMIMatthew K. Caserta, P.E., BechtCorrosion control documents (CCDs) have gained widespread use as essential element of a high-functioning fixed equipment mechanical integrity (FEMI) program. First developed in the refining industry, these documents are seeing increased usage in the wider chemical process industry. CCDs tie together process operations and conditions, materials of construction, damage mechanisms, inspection requirements, integrity operating windows (IOWs), and other items into a comprehensive document that provides the necessary information for an effective FEMI program. Even when not required in a jurisdiction, CCDs are becoming recognized and generally accepted good engineering practice. This presentation will discuss key elements of a CCD program as defined in API 970 – Corrosion Control Documents, as well as industry best practices for implementing and maintaining a comprehensive damage mechanism assessment program.Damage Mechanisms Review: Cornerstone of Mechanical IntegrityNina Young, Chevron Phillips Chemical LP and Clay White, Becht A damage mechanism review (DMR) forms the basis for our most key mechanical integrity programs. This presentation will focus on the importance of that review and the integration of results into MI programs including Integrity Operating Windows, Risk Based Inspection, Piping Systemization and Circuitization and ultimately inspection strategy development. For most companies these key MI programs have been typically managed independently as a “one-off” system or efforts, where the results from one program are not typically utilized in other programs. The presentation will discuss the importance of integrating these programs primarily through the DMR process. A discussion and examples on the different levels of detail and data requirements to support these programs will be provided (e.g. a DMR executed as part of an RBI program will have different requirements and information produced than one developed for an IOW program). In addition, the importance of standardizing results to maintain consistency from both a corporate perspective (for multiple Sites) and at the Site level (for multiple Units) will be discussed. Examples of template spreadsheets for the collection of data, corrosion & materials diagrams and others will also be reviewed.Materials of Construction to Mitigate MIC Corrosion and Improve SustainabilityChuck Young and Dennis Lamberth, Tricor Metals
This presentation will briefly discuss the mechanisms behind MIC Corrosion and how to determine which may be the ultimate problem in a system. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), acid producing bacteria (APB), iron reducing bacteria (IRB) as well as multiple types of algae can be found in water systems associated with chemical process heating and cooling systems. All of these, alone or in combination with each other, can result in significant MIC corrosion. To mitigate or eliminate the possibility of MIC corrosion, a CPI engineer must understand these mechanisms and how they interact with other design features of the system – in order to determine which material of construction can be successfully used in a chemical plant’s water system. The resistance to MIC corrosion of common materials and design of construction used in the CPI will be discussed to show how the initial right choice in materials and design details can dramatically influence the plant profitability and the operations’ sustainability. These design details, as well as materials including stainless steel, duplex stainless steel, nickel alloys, copper/nickel alloys and titanium, will be discussed – with key advice as to how to minimize MIC corrosion. Specific examples of MIC corrosion will also be shown, as well as its effects on the plant operation and how the issue was resolved to the benefit of the plant’s reliability.
Sustainable Use of DSS in Storage TanksClaes Tigerstrand, Outokumpu
Pyrophoric FeS – Case Histories and an Overview of a Classic Problem
Cathleen Shargay, Fluor and Jorge Penso, Shell
In the refining industry, damage from pyrophoric iron sulfide (FeS) has been reported sporadically for many years as shown by the compilation of case histories in this presentation. The typical manifestation is a fire inside equipment during turnarounds, and the ramifications vary from minor smoking, to bulging of vessel shells, to a tower falling over. The case history summary lists the unit, type of equipment and relevant internal components, estimated process details, and outcomes of the pyrophoric FeS fire. Further discussion is then presented on the implications of different base materials, and the typical turnaround cleaning practices to avoid these fires. The purpose of the presentation is to help in predicting the conditions that could lead to pyrophoric FeS formation, and to allow proper cleaning steps to be implemented proactively.
What is the optimal material solution for a process equipment to be considered as sustainable over the whole life cycle? Let us identify key factors in the material selection and how they influence adequate performance metrics. A large storage or process tank is used as application case comparing the performance of carbon steels vs. duplex stainless steels. Potential factors to be addressed spanning from material utilization, corrosion protection, fabrication complexity, safe and reliable service to decommissioning and recycling, and how they in turn affect the environmental footprints, resources and cost. The limiting conditions for the comparison are set by the applicable design and fabrication practices using established assessment methodsSystems and Circuits: Attaining Piping Inspection EfficiencyIsaac O’Brien, The Equity Engineering Group
The petroleum and chemical process industries continue to have more loss of containment incidents related to process piping than all other pressure equipment combined. Systems and circuits, when correctly applied to plant piping offers ease of management, optimized corrosion monitoring, improved damage detectability, and improved mechanical integrity. Existing plant inspection strategies may not effectively target the anticipated damage mechanism, resulting in financial waste. Conducting a systems
and circuits project will be described in detail with visual examples of past implementation. Defining the project scope, execution of the workflow, as well as typical deliverables will be discussed. Systems and circuits offer an excellent solution to capture and effectively manage plant piping so that safety and reliability are maintained.UNS N08935 and UNS N08028, High Corrosion Resistance for Reactor Effluent Air Coolers in Hydroprocessing UnitsKaren Picker, SandvikHydroprocessing reactor effluent air coolers (REAC’s) are highly demanding applications due to the array of corrosion challenges they encounter. Whether they are in service in traditional hydrocarbon units dealing with ammonium bisulfide (NH4HS) corrosion or in emerging technologies used in renewable diesel units dealing with fatty acids and high chlorides corrosion, the metallurgical challenges for these bundles demand the use of expensive high nickel alloys such as Alloy 825 and Alloy 625. Utilizing existing laboratory methodology, the corrosion performance of UNS N08935 and UNS N08028 have been tested and compared with other established alloys commonly used for these applications. Tests have been performed in organic acids, H2S-dominated environments with different NH4HS concentrations, and high chloride environments. Results will be presented to demonstrate these alloys superior performance to traditional metallurgies used in Hydroprocessing applications.