Completed Projects

Decades of Research

Over the course of its history, MTI and its expert members have consistently developed and completed critical projects for the industry. Vital information discovered through past MTI Projects repeatedly serves members in their day-to-day management of plants and in their continued efforts to find trusted solutions to today's CPI problems. MTI members have access to these documents in the e-Library as a benefit of membership. Some publications may be available to the public. Please visit the MTI Bookstore for more.

Ceramics 201 - Preventing Refractory Failures
Project 340

Ceramics 201- Preventing Refractory Failures (formerly Ceramics 103) was a half-day training session that built on the foundations taught in the previous two Ceramics training courses. The focus was on Case Studies of Ceramics and Refractory Failures, with images, learnings, and failure analysis techniques. Both thermal refractory and chemical resistant refractory were covered.

EuroTAC Ceramics 102 Training 
Project 338

Specialized knowledge in refractory ceramics is a dying art. The industry is experiencing a loss of expertise due to the steady flow of retirees from an aging workforce. In addition, today’s materials science programs are becoming increasingly focused upon general materials. With less emphasis placed on specific classes of materials such as metals or ceramics, this leaves the upcoming generation of engineers without the training and knowledge needed as they move to the workforce. Most companies do not have the luxury of on-staff ceramic engineers and are becoming more dependent upon the refractory vendors and consultants to supply information and recommendations. This can be confusing and intimidating, especially for younger engineers. Often times these engineers are at a loss for how best to communicate their needs, and are left wondering after the job is completed whether they were provided the best solution. This training took place in Europe in November 2018.

Life Sciences Roundtable
Project 337

MTI and Bayer organized a Life Sciences Roundtable in conjunction with the EuroTAC Spring 2019 meeting. This Life Sciences Roundtable addressed the materials engineering issues in the growing Life Science and Bioprocessing Industries, in order to:
1) Influence and sensitize the MTI organization for future projects, initiatives, and other valuable resources based on the challenges and problems specific to the Life Science Industries.
2) Invite representatives from the Life Science Industry in order to promote strong networks of knowledge and experience, to grow MTI in Life Sciences.

Sensors in Metallic and Polymer Systems
Project 319 

This project explored the use of RFID sensors to monitor equipment integrity by testing dual laminate polymer/metallic equipment. Wireless, chipless sensors will detect the presence of permeants via capacitance. This project conducted tests of the sensors in the lab, after chemical exposure in Atlas cells, and in an aggressive environment in a controlled lab environment.

Welding of SS and Other Metals / Alloy Training Class
Project 303

This training was held at AsiaTAC Fall 2017 in Hangzhou, China and included:

  • Welding C Type Nickel Alloys
  • Role of Ferrite in Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel
  • Dissimilar Metal Welding
  • Acceptable Level of Heat Tint on GTAW Welds

Carbonate Stress Cracking in Refinery Service
Project 294

Alkaline Carbonate Stress Corrosion Cracking (ACSCC) continues to occur in non-stress relieved carbon steel assets that are used in refinery sour (H2S) water service. The parameters controlling ACSCC are not clearly understood and the test methodology to monitor and predict ACSCC has not been universally accepted.  The first goal of this project is to establish the precision of carbonate measurement with bench top techniques as compared to ionic models. The second goal is to perform stress corrosion cracking tests in modeled sour water environments and produce a fail/no-fail threshold for the environment. 

Guidelines for Measuring Amount of Ferrite in Duplex Stainless Steels
Project 280

Metallurgical and fabrication factors have been shown to influence the chloride SCC resistance in duplex stainless steels. Two MTI projects on SCC of duplex stainless steels were proposed with similar intended objectives, namely (rx) Fabrication Effects on Cl Cracking and (rl) Chloride Cracking of Duplexes. A decision was made to combine the two projects prior to the AmeriTAC 118 in Houston. At the AmeriTAC 118, team discussions pointed to the needs of determining the ferrite level in HAZ and of the generation of more information on the minimum threshold temperatures for Chloride SCC. These were the objectives of this project.

Lined Pipe Retorque
Project 278

This report quantifies the effects of various changes that could be employed during flanged joint assembly and subsequent thermal cycle and retorque to better understand the effects of those variables on PTFE lined pipe makeup.

Ceramics 102 Training
Project 277

Specialized knowledge in refractory ceramics is a dying art. The industry is experiencing a loss of expertise due to the steady flow of retirees from an aging workforce. In addition, today’s materials science programs are becoming increasingly focused upon general materials. With less emphasis placed on specific classes of materials such as metals or ceramics, this leaves the upcoming generation of engineers without the training and knowledge needed as they move to the workforce. Most companies do not have the luxury of on-staff ceramic engineers and are becoming more dependent upon the refractory vendors and consultants to supply information and recommendations. This can be confusing and intimidating, especially for younger engineers. Often times these engineers are at a loss for how best to communicate their needs, and are left wondering after the job is complete whether they were provided the best solution.  This training was scheduled at AmeriTAC 125 on February 19, 2018.

Clad Materials Training Class
Project 276

AsiaTAC leadership team assembled a group of world-class experts to offer a one-day training course on the subject on September 26, 2016 in conjunction with the annual fall meeting (September 27-28, 2016) in Shanghai, China.  This seminar gave an overall introduction of the different families of clad materials (including performance advantages, cost analysis, selection, specifications, industry standards and design) and how they achieved their excellent corrosion and strength properties, and what will be necessary to maintain them during fabrication. Both new and experienced specifiers and users of clad materials found practical information in this seminar.

MTI - Defining and Explaining Country of Origin
Project 272

Country of Origin of goods and materials used in the CPI is a concern to producer companies. This project consisted of two phases. Phase one described the legal / customs definition of Country of Origin, Country of Manufacture; Country of Melt and Substantial Transformation as well as other terms used. Phase two addressed commercial considerations and provided member countries suggested guidelines to use to insure they receive goods and materials that meet their requirements.  This project became TAC Awareness Bulletin 30 - Sourcing Metal and Alloy Parts:  What Does "Country of Origin" Mean and Is It Important?

Duplex Stainless Steel Training Seminar at AsiaTAC
Project 270

This one-day seminar is an updated version of a successful seminar held at AmeriTAC 112 in the U.S. in October 2013.  To make it especially relevant for the AsiaTAC membership, the content has been updated and adapted with local content, combining some of the original seminar lecturers with a number of Chinese experts.  The purpose and content of the seminar is to give an overview of topics related to selection, specification, design, and fabrication and welding of duplex stainless steels. 

Corrosion Data of the Most Commonly Used Corrosion-Resistant Nickel Alloys ...
Project 269 

Corrosion-resistant nickel alloys are finding more and more applications in various industries, particularly chemical and petrochemical industries. MTI can continue to play important roles in promoting the safe and more efficient global applications of nickel alloys. The purpose of this project was to develop corrosion data for selected common nickel alloys that then may be used by MTI members. Five types of nickel alloys were selected by the project team based on their popularities, including UNS N06022, N06600, N06625, N08825A, and N10276.

Guidance for Failure Mechanisms
Project 268 

Guidance for Failure Mechanisms provides an overview of the most prevalent failure mechanisms in the Chemical Processing Industry. The recently published guide (June 2020) is designed to complement API 571, Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry, by focusing on the types of damage mechanisms found in the chemical process industry that are not common in the oil and gas industry. The book’s 39 chapters describe where, how, and why these types of failure occur, how they can be inspected and detected, and how to prevent them from occurring in the first place.

Manual for Design of Field Corrosion Testing
Project 254  

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The objective of this book is to present information on field corrosion testing which has been used to develop valuable results for minimizing the corrosion damage to materials of construction used in the CPI. In cases where standard methods or guides have been developed, documents are discussed and references provided. In addition, the process of planning field testing programs, designing racks and specimens for these tests is described, along with procedures for carrying out the test program. Related information on the inspection of equipment and corrosion monitoring is also provided. Although the emphasis is primarily on process equipment for chemical manufacturing, other types of field testing have been included, along with their evaluation procedures as these types of tests are occasionally necessary. To illustrate the value of field corrosion testing five case histories have been included.

Training for In-Service FRP Inspection
Project 251
Two courses on Inspector Training for New FRP Equipment were developed and delivered in China, Europe, and the US, with Juan Bustillos as the instructor.  Since the delivery of this training, significant interest was expressed by the trainees and MTI members for a similar training session for in-service FRP equipment and piping.  This project leveraged the previously developed Inspector training package and delivered follow-on training for inspection of In-Service FRP Equipment and piping, in at least two separate 2-day sessions, in the United States.  The training is intended to develop entry-level FRP inspection competency for the participants (member company employees or other outside interested parties) for inspection of in-service FRP equipment, piping, and duct.

Atlas of Microstructures for Alloy C276
Project 249

A high quality Atlas of Microstructures was developed for all product forms and welds for the corrosion resistant nickel alloys commonly used in the CPI.

Ceramics 101 Training
Project 247-15

Ceramics 101, a half-day course, was presented on October 26, 2015 before AmeriTAC 118 in Houston Texas.  Eric Minford, a PhD Ceramicist from Penn State University with 27 years of experience as a Lead Research Engineer and Principal Consultant with Air Products, presented the course.  The Topics included Characteristics of Ceramics, Properties of Ceramics, Fabrication Methods, Applications of Ceramics, and Guidelines for Designing with Ceramics.  

Flexible Hose Reliability Manual
Project 242-15

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This project team formed as a result of a presentation made at AmeriTAC 107 to bring mechanical integrity aspects of flex hoses to process areas to improve safety of this critical piece of equipment. 

Advanced SS Seminar on Fabrication and Welding
Project 241

The following Training Sessions were scheduled:

  1. Welding of Stainless Steels Training, given at AmeriTAC 120 in Knoxville, TN in June 2016.
  2. Clad Materials Training, given at AsiaTAC September 2016 in Shanghai, China. (See Project 276, Materials Training Class, for presentations.)
  3. Welding Training, given at AsiaTAC September 2017 in Hangzhou, China.
  4. Advanced Topics in Duplex Stainless Steels Training, given at AsiaTAC April 2018 in Singapore. (Presentations are not available.)

Fluoropolymers Materials for Chemical Handling
Project 237-14

A one-day training was provided to enhance its members’ understanding of fluoropolymers materials for chemical handling. The speakers were all DuPont employees who possessed in-depth expertise in the subjects covered. The training was held in conjunction with the 2014 Fall AsiaTAC in Shanghai, China.

Sharing Program to Introduce Advanced Reliability Principles and Tools in China
Project 235-14

The project provided a platform to introduce/update/share reliability principles and tools, targeting on the improvement of reliability performance.  The Reliability Technology Training workshop was held at AsiaTAC Fall 2014 on 23 September 2014 in Shanghai, China.

Design of Field Corrosion Testing
Project 234-14
This project assessed the progress in Field Corrosion Testing, summarized the progress, and made it available to MTI members.  The scope of the project included the presentations submitted for the joint ASTM/MTI workshop on advances in Field Corrosion Testing.  The MTI/ASTM Workshop on Field Corrosion Monitoring and Testing, which was par
t of the 50th Anniversary of the ASTM G01 Committee, was held on 11 November 2014 in New Orleans, LA.

Second Training Program to Introduce the Latest FFS Technology
Project 232-14

MTI sponsored this training project as a repeat of the first FFS training project, which was delivered in October 2013 in Shanghai at the AsiaTAC 2013 Meeting. This project delivered the same training in conjunction with the May 2014 AsiaTAC meeting in Taiwan to both member and non-member trainees in the Asian Region.  Fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment is a multi-disciplinary approach to determine, as the name suggests, whether a structural component is fit for continued service.  The program was designed to help trainees understand the latest state-of-the-art FFS technology and to improve plant mechanical integrity.

Updating MS-3 HCl and Chlorine
Project 230

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This project updated and supplemented Publication Materials Selection MS-3, which was published in 1999 and contained information assembled several years before that.  Additional available information and data on related environments, such as chlorine dioxide and organic chlorides, were included.

Intergranular Corrosion and Cracking of CN7M-CN3MCu Castings
Project 229-13 
CN7M (cast Alloy 20) has a long history of developing through-body cracks in valves and other components despite, in some instances, invoking rigorous casting quality control procedures.  Services in which this phenomenon has been observed are aqueous and anhydrous HF and sulfuric acid.  Some of these failures occur after a relatively short time in service, leading to unexpected leaks with serious safety, environmental, and production consequences. The project objective was to conduct a metallurgical study of CN7M casting material to identify the root cause of premature cracking in chemical plant exposures.

High-Temperature Behavior of Weld Joints in the Cast 20Cr-32Ni-Nb Alloy ...
Project 227  

This project developed reliable, independent data on the high-temperature (1500 to 1700 °F) behavior of weld joints in 20Cr-32Ni-Nb alloy cast components, primarily those used in steam methane reformer (SMR) outlet manifold systems.

Training Program to Introduce the Latest Fitness-for-Service (FFS) Technology & Advanced Reliability Principles and Tools in China
Project 226-13

The project team wanted to help member companies understand the latest state-of-the-art FFS technology and improve plant Mechanical Integrity.  This training was held at AsiaTAC October 2013.  The objectives of this project were to:

  • Provide a comprehensive introduction to the technology.
  • Help attendees to understand the information requirements for performing FFS assessments.
  • Promote the use of the FFS technology for making repair, replace and re-design/re-rate decisions within Asia/ Pacific.

Ceramic Fiber Insulation Thermal Properties - Phase 2
Project 225-13

The design of vessels using internal layers of ceramic fiber insulation has been and continues to be done using a combination of qualitative and empirical data.  There is an industry need for more quantitative thermal property data on ceramic fiber insulation to improve thermal design of high-pressure reactor systems and the thermal efficiency of those systems.  This project is an extension of a literature review and assessment of the data available on thermal properties of ceramic fiber insulation and the models for predicting the thermal properties of ceramic fiber insulation.  It includes the verification of models identified in the first project completed in December 2012.

Inspection and Evaluation of Old Equipment - Lost Papers
Project 224-12

Design and fabrication information for old equipment, especially that designed and constructed prior to 1940, is incomplete or does not exist. The operator of the equipment is then faced with the task of deciding if it can continue to be operated safely and reliably. A number of MTI members companies indicated that they would like to have guidance for inspecting and evaluating equipment with inadequate or missing background information. This project team developed improved methods for inspecting and evaluating old equipment with inadequate or missing background information.

Design, Installation, Maintenance, and Inspection of Plastic Lined Metallic Pipe
Project 223

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Use of plastic lined metallic pipe provides an economic alternate to expensive alloy piping materials, but also has its own set of challenges. Some of these challenges include maintaining reliable flanged connections, selecting the proper lining material for the service, developing a proper inspection program, addressing static charge build up from flowing fluids, how the liner is locked to the metal pipe, types of joining techniques, monitoring when vents are used. This project provides information on various construction and material options, provides information on inspection options and their limitations, guidance on how to dissipate static build up, and what is needed for a reliable maintenance strategy.

Ceramic Fiber Insulation Thermal Properties - Phase 1
Project 222-12

The design of vessels using internal layers of ceramic fiber insulation has been and continues to be done using a combination of qualitative and empirical data. There is an industry need for more quantitative thermal property data on ceramic fiber insulation to improve thermal design of high-pressure reactor systems and the thermal efficiency of those systems.  This project assessed and evaluated the publically available data on ceramic fiber insulation to support improved modeling and operation of high pressure, high temperature reactor systems.  The objectives of the literature study/review were to:  

  • Determine what data already exists in the literature for the thermal properties of refractory materials (ceramics) at elevated temperature, pressure various gas environments.
  • Determine what models exist for predicting the thermal properties of these materials under the stated conditions. 
  • Given the results of objectives one and two, identify the most productive methods of obtaining the missing data. This will include both modeling and experiment approaches.

Chemical-Resistant Masonry Manual
Project 221

Development of a comprehensive manual for the end user of chemical-resistant masonry lined equipment. This manual will help prospective owners in the CPI successfully specify, procure, operate, maintain and ultimately dispose of brick lined equipment. The manual consists of two separate reports:  (1) Materials used in Chemical Resistant Masonry Lining Systems and (2) Design Considerations for Chemical Resistant Masonry Lining Systems.

Investigation of Technologies Common to Other Industries
Project 220-12

This project was initiated in the ICA PDC at AmeriTAC 103. The intent was to find and explore technologies that have been developed for industries other than the CPI to determine if they have possible application to the CPI

Plastic Repair Welding
Project 219-12

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This project collected data of users, manufacturers, and suppliers on experiences of conducting weld repairs to plastic lined equipment that had been in chemical service. Fluoropolymers, CPVC, PVC, PP, PE, and HDPE were included that had been in service in a wide range of chemical and temperature exposures. Data from a survey was evaluated to determine exposures for Atlas Cell Tests. Welding issues were attempted to be duplicated and characterized. Methods for corrective actions for post exposure thermoplastic welding were developed.

RBI Training in China to Improve Equipment Inspection Strategy
Project 218-12

MTI initiated this project to help member companies to improve the understanding of the RBI technology and to improve inspection strategy.  This training focused on the overview of RBI technology concept and applications, but additional topics covering theory and software applications were covered. The topic list of the project was as follows:

  • Brief introduction on basic technology/standards to RBI methodology.
  • General and most popular applications in processing industries.
  • The real benefits from RBI application to the operating companies.
  • RBI implementation program.
  • Limitations of RBI.

NDE HD Ceramics Phase II
Project 217-12

Defects in refractory bricks are very costly to end use customers, and current technologies do not allow for cost effective, reliable testing.  After extensive investigations by this project team over two years, a thru-transmission ultrasonic technique by Sonomatic was identified that is a fast and viable technique to meet industry needs.  Phase I of this project, completed in January 2012 successfully identified defects the lack thereof in 25 HFW 3-75 bricks (26% silica, 66% alumina, 15% porosity).  The proposed Phase II further developed and defined the technique’s applicability to a wider range of bricks identified by MTI members.

Revision of MTI Publication #15 Stress Corrosion Cracking
Project 216 

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This project revised, updated, and republished MTI’s Publication #15, Stress Corrosion Cracking. The revision, Environmental Cracking, includes advances in understanding stress corrosion cracking and also includes case studies that were unavailable when the original document was authored. 

Prediction and Detection of Hydride Formation in Titanium
Project 215-12

Hydride formation in alpha titanium and alpha titanium alloys is an ongoing problem in the CPI.  The hydrides that form, usually in a corrosive environment, can cause titanium components to fail in a brittle manner.  For this reason, there is a need to find a non-destructive method to detect hydriding in both plate and tubular components and thereby prevent failures.

Welding Duplex Alloys
Project 214

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The basis for this project was the reported failures of several reactor-effluent-air-cooler (REAC) header boxes fabricated from thick 2205 plate. As a result of these failures there was concern by duplex users and suppliers over possible limitations on acceptable materials of construction and process conditions for REAC applications. The project developed a comprehensive "best practices" guide for the design, welding, repair, and inspection equipment fabricated from 22% Cr duplex stainless steel >1-inch thick plate.

Global FRP Standards
Project 213-11

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MTI member companies operate in regions of the world where FRP procurement, design, and fabrication are done according to different codes and practices. A major dilemma for member companies is that many fabricators outside the US are incapable and reluctant to make parts according to the North American standards. North American based member companies typically insist on compliance with North American standards for design, fabrication, transport, operation, inspection, repair and replacement. As the FRP technology has matured in the last 30 years, it is felt that other regions may have achieved parity or possibly exceeded North American standards.  This project compared the essential design features of North American and European Codes. The result of this comparison will allow MTI member companies to develop their own strategy to address these differences and make appropriate decisions based on safety, cost, and design life, and reliability of the FRP equipment

Evaluation of Tantalum Welds
Project 212

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The project developed techniques to evaluate tantalum welds that will result in high quality, defect free welds.

FRP Inspection Training 2
Project 211-11

This project conducted training sessions for MTI members in the United States and at EuroTAC based on the course MTI developed and presented in China.  A course on Inspector Training for FRP Equipment was developed and delivered in China and in Hong Kong for MTI, with Juan Bustillos as the instructor. MTI membership has also deemed this training beneficial to potential inspectors in the US and Europe. The objective of the project was to leverage the previously developed Inspector training package and deliver additional training in three separate sessions, two in the United States, and one at EuroTAC. The US courses were 2-day sessions similar to the Asia-Pacific sessions, while the EuroTAC course was configured as a one-day course. The training was intended to develop entry-level FRP inspection competency for the participants (member company employees or other outside interested parties) for inspection of new FRP equipment, piping, and duct.

Terahertz Imaging - No. 2
Project 210-11

This project continued the investigation of Project 186-08 of the use of an advanced terahertz imaging technique for finding defects in in-service FRP structures - in particular the tank floor to shell junction. It also tested the use of terahertz imaging for the detection of defects in refractory brick.

Design of Laboratory Corrosion Testing
Project 209-11 

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Project Team created an MTI document that describes how standardized or general laboratory data is used to resolve operating problems, affect material selection, and affect design decisions.  The objective of this project was to:

  1. Provide Design of Experiment information, i.e., statistical considerations of the number of coupons and data points that must be taken to generate meaningful data.
  2. Give case study examples of how lab data can be successful and when it is not. Define the elements of a successful lab experiment and which components must be present for the data generated to be meaningful.
  3. Discuss considerations when making final equipment materials of construction design decisions. Show how laboratory data, field corrosion coupon data, and literature data are all taken into consideration to reach a final decision.

NDE of HD Ceramics
Project 208-11

There is a need within industry for a Non-Destructive Examination for high density alumina bricks to detect internal flaws. These internal defects lead to premature failure when the bricks go through startup and cool down cycles, which lead to costly shutdowns and maintenance. Current NDE techniques for refractories are either unrealistically impractical or unreliable. This project began with a technology survey and possible technique development/testing to determine an accurate NDE method.

Bolting in China
Project 207-11
The purpose of this project was to construct and deliver a training course on fasteners quality control for MTI member companies in AP Region. The objectives were to:

  • Deliver a training class to both MTI member companies and the Chinese fastener manufacturers in fundamentals of good practices in requirements in purchasing, specifications and processing of CPI fasteners.
  • Educate fastener manufacturers the requirements that are mandatory for chemical and petrochemical producers to operate safe plants.

As an outcome of the project, MTI held a Fastener Training program at AsiaTAC Fall 2011 in Shanghai, China in September 2011, which was attended by both member and nonmember companies. 

Permeation Through Polymers
Project 206-11

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Project Team revised and expanded MTI's Publication No. 53, Permeation through Polymers for Process Industry Applications. The objectives of this project were:

  1. Provide MTI members with the most current information on permeability in polymers.
  2. Expand the knowledge base performance characteristics of polymer for use in chemical processes with real life data collected over the past 10 years when permitted.

Field Fabrication of Large Diameter FRP Tanks
Project 205-11

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Developed a comprehensive guide/best practice to assist in the specifications, procurement, general design guidelines, fabrication and/or assembly, and inspection of large diameter FRP tanks.  Reflected current North American best practices in a way that could be utilized globally.

Casting Quality Prediction in 5%, 9% and 12% Cr Alloys
Project 204-10

This project expanded the previous Niyama casting quality prediction work (Project 175-06) to include 5%, 9%, and 12% Cr alloys. Funding was approved for approximately 14% of the project cost from MTI and the remainder came from the American Petroleum Institute.
Final Report also available from www.sfsa.org/downloads/mti
(username: mti and password: mtiuisfsa)

O-Ring Identification
Project 201-10 | Contact MTI Office for DVD
This project team investigated other techniques that will work to PMI carbon filled O-rings.

Duplex Alloy Microstructures
Project 200-10

The Duplex Alloy Microstructures team commissioned a Duplex Stainless Steel Atlas of Microstructures. It focused on cast and welded structures and sigma phase identification.

Pneumatic Leak Testing of Heat Exchanger Tubing
Project 199-10

ASTM standard A1047 introduced the concept of pneumatic leak testing of tubing using a known leak rate and a cut-off pressure change that is allowed after a preset passage of time. Members need to know how to use this standard and its pros and cons.  The objective of this project team was to understand how and when to use the new standard, understand the limitations of the existing standards and how this standard can be used to increase reliability and decrease the costs associated with the testing of tubing.

Surface Modification for Poisoning of Metal Dusting
Project 198-10

The objective for this project was to identify elements that do not catalyze the metal dusting reaction and to develop a method for surface modification with those elements for "poisoning" of the metal dusting reaction.  The project involved the modification of the surface of the relevant alloys with "poisoning" elements for the Metal Dusting reaction, such as alkali metals (Na, K, Rb), Cu, Zn, and Ge. Testing the metal dusting resistance of the modified alloys was carried out in the laboratory by using appropriate gas compositions and temperatures.  Differences in incubation time, number, size, and depth of the metal dusting pits formed were quantified.

Demolition of Obsolete Equipment
Project 197-10

As the equipment and facilities the chemical processing industry utilized for the last century continue to age, more of the plant and equipment will become obsolete. There is a need for process guidance and best practices for safe, cost effective, and environmentally responsible demolition of these assets. Because many companies are not involved in plant and equipment demolition on a regular basis, facility managers may not have a thorough understanding of the demolition process.  The overall objective of this project was to provide generalized process guidance for chemical industry owners and managers that provide "best practices" for the following activities:

  • Preparing the facility for demolition
  • Contractor(s) selection
  • Pre-demolition planning
  • Asset recovery
  • Operations management

Accelerated Testing of FRP
Project 196-10

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In the chemical processing industry (CPI), the environments for equipment such as storage tanks, piping, etc., create the potential threat of corrosion related failures. The use of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) in manufacturing this equipment has provided a cost effective approach that can extend the life and reduce maintenance intervals. However, the long term properties of FRPs must still be established to allow the safe minimum number of inspection and maintenance intervals to be set. The current technology of shut down and inspections does not necessarily quantify the remaining life of the FRP structure. This project developed the technology that will provide service life projections or fitness for service assessments for FRP structures.

Glass-Lined Steel Training Course for China
Project 195-09 | Contact MTI Office for DVD
Experience with glass lined equipment produced in China varied widely.  Some equipment items had quality comparable to anything made in any other part of the world while others were suitable only for non-critical or short term applications.  The reasons for this discrepancy were not apparent. The differences were suspected to have been related to the quality of the steel used for glass lined equipment, the quality of the glass used, the skill of the operators in producing this equipment, or the quality control procedures.  MTI started this project to determine the reasons for this discrepancy and to train operating companies in the best ways to avoid these problems.  The three objectives of this project team were as follows:

  • Collect data on failures
  • Compare ASME and GB specifications
  • Develop a training course on Glass-Lined Equipment

 A two-day training course was conducted in Shanghai in April 2010.

Hydride Formation in Alpha Ti & Ti Alloys
Project 194-09

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This project team formed to get a better understanding of the nature and occurrence of titanium hydriding with the goal of preventing it from occurring or recurring.

Optimization of Cost of Chemical Plant Equipment
Project 193-09
As part of the Stainless World 2010 Conference held in the Houston area in early October, MTI hosted a series of panel discussions on Cost Optimization. Three panel discussion groups were scheduled on Thursday, October 7 on the third day of the SS World Conference.

High Temperature Alloy Microstructure Atlas
Project 192-09

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The scope of this project was to produce an Atlas of Microstructures with micrographs of specimens of each of the alloy classes, exposed to a range of times at temperatures and to include a written document discussing the microstructural changes observed with the progression of time and temperature. Precipitated phases will be identified by etching or other means including SEM and EDS.

2nd Statistical Analysis of NDE Data
Project 191-08
The objective of the project was to provide a written guideline that describes a process to users that will allow them to manage a more effective NDE inspection program by:

  • Designing for the optimum amount of data
  • Obtaining better quality data
  • Improving the evaluation of the data

Three potential parts to this project were defined that demonstrated the value of managing a more effective NDE inspection program:

  • Scope #l: Define the variability in the complete NDE inspection process.
  • Scope #2: Evalute NDE from a Piping Circuit.
  • Scope #3: Move a pressure vessel from internal visual inspections to non-intrusive inspections.

The results from this project benefit the CPI and refining industry by optimizing inspection intervals, reducing the risk of the loss of process containment by focusing inspection locations with the highest risk and highest consequence, and in some cases reducing inspection costs while reducing risks.

Reliability Manual for Fixed Equipment & Piping
Project 190 

Following the success of the Instrumentation Reliability Manual, many MTI members felt it would be worthwhile to undertake an analogous manual for fixed equipment. As fixed equipment maintenance and repair contributes a large portion of plant maintenance budgets, a reliability manual would reduce operating costs and improve plant safety. In addition, MTI members are highly knowledgeable and have considerable experience with the type of equipment to be included in the manual. The Fixed Equipment Reliability Manual allows members to use a significant amount of information that MTI has already published.

Advanced Metal Dusting Resistant Materials
Project 188-08

The project objective was to evaluate possibly advanced metal dusting resistant materials and coatings which were not included in the MTI testing at Argonne National Laboratory.  Though the MTI Metal Dusting II (156-03) project actively evaluated materials at ANL, this work was aimed at comparing current commercial alloys and studying the mechanism of metal dusting. The Metal Dusting II group supported this project, which searched for and evaluated new materials or coatings that may provide advanced metal dusting resistance superior to existing materials and/or more cost effective service.

Rouging (Phase 1 and 2)
Project 187-08 and 167-05

Rouging is a phenomenon that has been observed in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and food industries where stainless steel components are exposed to high purity water or steam and subsequently develop red-brown to dark violet surface deposits. Regardless of source, the costs involved in rouge mitigation, lost production time during maintenance operations, as well as the possibility of end product contamination, there is a need to better understand the rouging mechanism, its root causes, and better define mitigation methods for its prevention. Based on the needs of the industry, the first step was to better understand the conditions in an operating process environment where rouging has been observed. To accomplish this, an instrumented test skid was constructed and installed as a side loop on an operating water for injection (WFI) and high purity pharmaceutical water line that has exhibited rouging previously. Based on the results obtained, conclusions can be made.

Terahertz Imaging
Project 186-08

The Terahetz Imaging team leveraged and adapted imaging technology used in the aerospace and security industries for use in the CPI and related industries. Detection of defects in FRP equipment, corrosion under insulation, and corrosion behind refractories were identified as possible targets for development. This project was continued and extended in Project 210-11 Terahertz Imagining II.

FRP Inspection Training Program
Project 185-08
Many MTI Member Companies recognize the need for qualified inspectors of FRP equipment.  The need is particularly critical in mainland China, and there is also a need for qualified inspectors of FRP equipment that has been in service.  Hence, companies wishing to build FRP piping and equipment in mainland China and other parts of the world need a training program to qualify capable individuals for the FRP shop and in-service inspection.  Currently there are no known agencies that offer such training in China.  The primary goal of this project was to develop a multi-day training program to "qualify" participants for inspection of new FRP piping and equipment.  A secondary goal was to develop a program to qualify inspectors of in-service equipment. The first training class was held in Shanghai in 2008, and a subsequent session was held in Hong Kong in 2011. 

RBI for Polymers
Project 184-07

This project is designed to demonstrate the feasibility of using RBI for equipment constructed of polymer materials in use in the chemical and refining industry. It is a first step and as such of the project exhibits a narrow scope. The methodology was be demonstrated on FRP storage tanks.  With a successful demonstration on FRP tanks, the methodology is expected to be applicable to piping, vessels and other polymeric structures used in the chemical and refining industry.

Revision of MTI Publication No. 51 - Cleaning of Process Equipment & Piping
Project 183-07

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The purpose of this book,”Addendum to Cleaning of Process Equipment and Piping”, is to enable readers to improve the safety, reliability and profitability of cleaning operations in chemical process plants. In 1997, MTI published “Cleaning of Process Equipment and Piping” to provide practical information to plant engineers and operators responsible for cleaning operations in chemical and petrochemical plants and to enable non-specialists to develop cleaning procedures or to evaluate cleaning procedures developed by others. MTI decided that it would be better to augment than to update the 1997 publication. The Addendum includes descriptions of many newer cleaning methods that were either not developed or not widely used in chemical process equipment when the first book was published.  Later chapters describe the safe cleaning of equipment used to handle 5 chemicals that react dangerously with surface contaminants and 7 additional chemicals that react dangerously with water. The final chapter offers advice for avoiding common problems in cleaning operations, for writing cleaning specifications and for managing cleaning jobs.

Specification of Elastomeric Materials
Project 181-07

MTI members found that various suppliers of elastomeric components report the same property information despite significant differences in performance. Further discussion showed that current industry standards are too loose. As a result, MTI funded a project to develop a way to specify fluoropolymer elastomers used as seals and gaskets that will improve their consistency and reliability. This effort uses industry standards and specifications for the manufacture of elastomeric components.

Measuring Hydrogen in Titanium
Project 180-07

Hydriding of titanium can result in metal with reduced ductility. Current technology uses eddy current measurements to measure the resistance of possibly hydrided titanium and then correlates these resistance readings to the amount of hydriding. This project investigated alternative techniques to measure the electrical resistance of hydrided titanium and correlated these measurements with the amount of hydrogen dissolved and the remaining ductility of the titanium.  The initial results were disappointing since the electrical resistance readings to detect hydriding were not as definitive as predicted. We changed the project scope to see if we can detect surface hydrided samples and to see if probes with much smaller pin spacings would aid in the detection and quantification of hydriding. The result was that the electrical resistance technique is not sensitive enough to separate hydrided from non-hydrided titanium.

Thin Film Insulators
Project 178-07

This project investigated the thermal properties of insulating paints that were currently being marketed. These paints included the commercial products that contain micro-balloons in a latex matrix. We used ASTM based methods to quantify the rate of heat transfer (heat conservation) that these films allow. Since insulation is also used for personnel protection, we also investigated the burn prevention that these films offer using the appropriate ASTM standards.

Design For Inspection
Project 177  

The current situation is that some equipment gets built and delivered that is very difficult to inspect. Since most equipment used in the CPI requires routine, scheduled inspection, ownership of equipment that is difficult or impossible to inspect and certify for continued use is expensive to own since the inspection may call for the equipment to be cut apart, inspected, re-welded, and tested before it can be returned to service.  The premise for this project is that MTI will get a handbook that enumerates or lists design "tricks" and options so that they can be used by member companies to help in writing their design standards. The goal is to have standards that incorporate these design details so that member companies can maximize the value that they get in purchased equipment.

Improving and Evergreening RBI
Project 176-06 
MTI developed and published a manual entitled "Implementing and Evergreening RBI in Process Plants." The manual was rolled out to MTI members during a one-day meeting at the February 2005 MTI meeting. During the roll out meeting, it was agreed that the manual would need periodic updating to both evergreen the document and to improve it.  The objective of this project was to conduct a conference of MTI members and interested non-MTI members to discuss and present the results of their experiences in implementing RBI in their respective companies and plants. The experiences highlighted success stories as well as identified areas for improvement in the implementation of RBI in chemical process plants and process plants using chemical processes.  The project included participation by MTI members and by invited non-MTI members. The conference focused on end users of RBI and their experiences. The conference was not a venue for commercial offerings of RBI methodology.  The conference was held in February 2007 at the MTI AmeriTAC Meeting in Galveston Texas.

Casting Quality Prediction
Project 175-06

One of the MTI members brought a report of a serious problem they had encountered with a casting of the composition N7M to a TAC meeting. As a result of that report, additional work was done to identify a change in the chemistry specification that would reduce the probability of future problems. MTI presented this to ASTM and the committee that administers these specifications will now be balloting the addition of a new specification to ASTM A494.

Repair and Damage Assessment of Glass Lined Equipment
Project 173-06

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Repair of glass lined equipment has been done for many years. While it is often effective, its drawbacks of reliability and limited life can affect overall plant reliability and sometimes plant safety. The objectives of this project were to:

  • Identify reasons for failure of glass lined equipment
  • Identify difficulties and limitations of field repair of glass lined equipment
  • Inform member companies about the state-of-the-art concerning glass lined equipment repair
  • Identify goals for improving the state-of-the-art
  • Identify a course of action to improve the reliability and longevity of glass lined equipment repair

High Temperature Strength of Titanium
Project 172-06

In Project 151-02, MTI assembled sufficient mechanical property data to convince the ASME that Code Case 2497-2 should be issued. The Code Case created Grades 2H, 7H, 16H, and 26H which have allowable stresses that are approximately 15% higher than the conventional grades. Unfortunately, the Code Case limits the use of these alloys to 500 degrees F instead of the 600 degrees F limit used for the conventional grades. This report summarizes the results of MTI Project 172-06, the primary objective of which was to extend the maximum allowable use temperature for Code Case 2497-2 and titanium Grade 2H, 7H, 16H, and 26H materials to 600°F. Data developed will readily support extension of Code Case 2497-2 and the H Grades to temperatures to 600°F. The report includes all raw data for the plate materials and from both tensile and dynamic modulus testing, as well as tabular and graphic presentations of these data and values derived from them.

Procedure for Evaluating Failure
Project 170-05 

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To maintain continuous process plant production, it is often necessary to make immediate field repairs of damaged fixed equipment and piping prior to an investigation into the cause of the damage. In these cases, plant personnel must gather relevant information prior to the damage or destruction of affected parts that occurs during repairs. This book will guide plant personnel in obtaining information and samples for future analysis of equipment damage.

Incident Assessment
Project 169-05

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MTI Publication No. 30, Guidelines for Assessment of Fire and Explosion Damage, was revised, updated and expanded. Publication No. 30 has proved to be one of MTI's most popular publications - necessitating reprinting. The document was written nearly twenty years ago. During the ensuing twenty years, there have been significant advances in the technologies described in the publication. In the years since September 11, there has been an even greater focus on safety, security and integrity of plant facilities throughout all industries.

MS-8 Organic Solvents
Project 168-05

MS-8 Materials Selector for Organic Solvents addresses the performance of materials in organic solvents. The following topics are covered in the publication:

  • Basic properties of solvents
  • Effect of water, pH, inhibitors, catalysts, static discharge, etc.
  • Corrosion category + 0 -
  • Corrosion rates for specific conditions
  • Effect on elastomers and plastics
  • Case Histories

Rouging (Phase 1 and 2)
Project 167-05 and 187-08

Rouging is a phenomenon that has been observed in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and food industries where stainless steel components are exposed to high purity water or steam and subsequently develop red-brown to dark violet surface deposits. Regardless of source, the costs involved in rouge mitigation, lost production time during maintenance operations, as well as the possibility of end product contamination, there is a need to better understand the rouging mechanism, its root causes, and better define mitigation methods for its prevention. Based on the needs of the industry, the first step was to better understand the conditions in an operating process environment where rouging has been observed. To accomplish this, an instrumented test skid was constructed and installed as a side loop on an operating water for injection (WFI) and high purity pharmaceutical water line that has exhibited rouging previously. Based on the results obtained, conclusions can be made.

Guide for the Repair & Modification of Lined Equipment
Project 166-05

Owners of lined equipment require vital information on how to access, repair and modify this equipment to maximize the longevity, reliability and value of the equipment. The objective of this project was to create a guidebook for use by owners of lined equipment. The guidebook provides guidance on the suitability of the equipment for repair, specific repair techniques for various materials and systems, and methods for assessment of the integrity of repaired equipment.

Guide for the Repair & Modification of FRP Equipment
Project 165-05 

Owners of equipment constructed from FRP require vital information on how to access, repair and modify this equipment to maximize the longevity, reliability and value of the equipment. The objective of this project was to create a guidebook for use by owners of FRP tanks, vessels, piping, and transport equipment. The guidebook provides guidance on the suitability of the equipment for repair, specific repair techniques for various materials and systems, and methods for assessment of the integrity of repaired equipment.

Atlas of Microstructures
Project 162-04

Creep rupture data developed on steam reforming tubes is used to design the expected life of tubes in that service. Knowledge of the microstructural changes that occur during service is also desirable. Samples were collected from various foundries and examined to develop an understanding of these microstructural changes.

Building & Marketing Flange Makeup Kit & Training
Project 161-04

This project developed training and qualification procedures for personnel responsible for making up bolted flanged joints in pressure vessels and piping. In addition to the written procedures, a test rig was designed, with detailed drawings for fabrication. MTI fabricated this prototype rig as a demonstration unit and evaluated the rig and the procedures at plant site demonstrations.

Guide for Design, Manufacture, Installation & Operation of FRP Flanges & Gaskets
Project 160-04

The objective of this project was to develop a comprehensive training guide and reference document for design, fabrication, installation and operation of full face and lap-joint style FRP flanges. The guidebook draft has four sections; each section discusses a different aspect of an FRP flanged connection. The first section covers the design and construction of FRP flanges, discusses the design procedures outlined in several widely-used industry standards, and provides example calculations. The second section discusses four popular manufacturing techniques, including the advantages and disadvantages of each. The last two sections discuss proper installation procedures for FRP flanges, including the commonly used gaskets, bolts, and lubrications, as well as methods for determining the proper bolt torque and the bolting of dissimilar flange faces. In each of the sections, some issues or pitfalls to be aware of are highlighted.

User's Guide for Evaluating New Polymer Systems
Project 159-04

The objective was to provide a guide with decision tree methodology for evaluating a newly introduced polymeric material or polymer application technology. The guide was based on current industry practices and includes a polymer manufacturer and polymer material reference database.

Welding of Clad Titanium Plate
Project 158-03

The standard practice for protecting the welds in clad titanium plate construction is with a batten strip. This technique has some problems in service, and a method of directly weld overlaying the joint would be desirable. This project was designed to develop that capability.

Metal Dusting II
Project 156-03

Metal dusting is a high temperature corrosion phenomenon that damages equipment in chemical process plants; examples are steam reforming plants and Syngas plants. The focus of this project was to identify the parameters that control metal dusting and to recommend new/improved alloys or coatings that are resistant to metal dusting.

Reliability Manual
Project 155-03 

The reliability of equipment in chemical process plants is of great economic importance. Reliability is important for operations, safety and the environment. This project focused on the development of a manual to assist MTI members in understanding the factors that insure the reliability of instruments used to control and monitor chemical processes.

How to Implement Risk-Based Inspection
Project 152-02

The project developed a manual, "Implementing and Evergreening Risk-Based Inspection in Process Plants", for MTI member use to guide members in implementation of RBI in their companies and to assist members in making the decision whether to implement RBI in their companies.

Modernization of ASTM Specifications for Unalloyed Titanium
Project 151-02

Unalloyed titanium is a material that is widely used in the chemical industry; however, it could be more widely used if the properties accurately reflected that capability of the material. Data was collected to generate higher allowable stresses, and this was balloted at ASTM.

Chemical Industry Corrosion Management (CICM)
Project 150-02

This program is an extension of the ASSET program (Project 130-99 Enhancement & Commercialization of Alloy Selection System for Elevated Temperatures - ASSET) that investigated other high temperature environments including chlorination and cyclical oxidation.  A final report is available through the eLibrary, and the ASSET program (Version 12.1) is available on DVD by request to the MTI Office.

Monitoring Refractory Thickness
Project 149-02

The general purpose of the project was to develop a non-destructive evaluation technique for in-service monitoring of refractory linings in chemical processing vessels. Refractory linings usually consist of several courses of bricks or a monolithic (castable) material.

Four categories of NDE methods were selected for feasibility assessments.

NDE Techniques

  • Pulse Echo Ultrasound
  • Dual Band Infrared (DBIR) Computed Tomography
  • Broadly penetrating Radiation
  • Acousto Ultrasound (AU)

The final report documented the results of feasibility tests and summarized the capabilities and limitations of each NDE method.

Permeation Testing Protocol
Project 145-01

The ubiquitous phenomenon of permeation occurs in such an array of forms – brought about by the different fluid-types and polymers that can experience it – that methods of measurement in turn differ widely across these variations.  A Guide document in the nature of a standard to cover the range of these variations has now been developed.

Flange Makeup Training Program
Project 143-01

The results of a series of plant visits made by KDC Technology Corp. engineers were analyzed to establish the feasibility of using a microwave resonator sensor to externally monitor the internal wall deterioration caused by blister growth in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tanks and pipes.  

Field Trials of Microwave NDE
Project 142-01

The objective of this project is to confirm microwave resonator sensor sensitivity in the detection of known blister defects from field test measurements on FRP tanks that have been in Hydrochloric acid service. The emphasis is on known and/or suspect defects that involve localized search patterns.  This technique has the potential to provide an economic and efficient means of non-intrusively inspecting FRP storage tanks and piping.

Metal Dusting
Project 138

Final Report available from DOE
www.osti.gov/bridge/
reports@adonis.osti.gov

The overall objective of this project is to study metal dusting phenomenon from a fundamental scientific base involving laboratory research in simulated process environments and field-testing of materials in actual process environments with participation from the U.S. chemical industry, alloy manufacturers, and the Materials Technology Institute (MTI).  Another objective is to develop a user-friendly knowledge base of materials/corrosion information for application in the chemical and petrochemical industries.

Advanced Intermetallics & Alloy for Ethylene Crackers
Project 137-00

The long time use of tubes in an ethylene cracker is limited by the carburization and coking that occurs during operation. This project was designed to develop a tube with resistance to both that is an order of magnitude better than current materials of construction.

Corrosion Monitoring System
Project 135-00

Honeywell, teamed with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Eastman Chemical Company, and the Materials Technology Institute, to develop and demonstrate a continuous, on-line Corrosion Monitoring System (CMS) for the chemical processing industry. The CMS will autonomously provide real-time information that identifies existing problems (diagnostics) and predicts future failures (prognostics).

MS-Series Publications
Project 131-99

MTI has produced a series of publications on Materials Selection for the Handling of Hazardous Chemicals as follows:

  • MS-1 Sulfuric Acid
  • MS-2 Formic Acid
  • MS-3 Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrochloric Acid
  • MS-5 Nitric Acid
  • MS-6 Ammonia and Caustic
  • MS-7 Phosphoric Acid
  • MS-8 Organic Solvents

Enhancement & Commercialization of the Alloy Selection System for Elevated Temperatures (ASSET)
Project 130-99 | See Project 150-02 for Final Report & Program
This program was designed to collect laboratory high temperature corrosion data in a variety of gas mixtures including oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and mixtures of these environments. A computer program was written that would allow the user to input conditions and display the expected behavior of several materials on the same graph. The data are selected to predict the maximum depth of attack for any set of conditions. This project was continued in Project 150-02 Chemical Industry Corrosion Management - CICM.

Duplex Stainless Steel Training
Project “qt”

A special seminar, “Recent Developments in Application, Standardization, and Welding of Duplex Stainless Steels”, was held on October 28, 2013 at AmeriTAC 112 in Savannah, GA. This seminar gave an overview of developments that have occurred in the use, fabrication and standardization of Duplex Stainless Steels. The seminar covered three main subjects: Applications, Welding, and Standards and QA/Specifications. Each topic covered a short historic overview of “how it was” and “what is new” within the three main categories.

Polymer Training
Project “qr”

This team surveyed currently available short polymers, elastomers and FRP training courses.  The team then determined what gaps there are, and developed MTI courses to meet the needs of training a new materials engineer in non-metallic issues for selection, design, inspection, failure analysis, etc.  This project developed a resource list of existing trainings.

Nickel Alloys Training and Activities in China
Project "pz"

The project team planned to promote nickel alloys training and related activities in China.  A Corrosion Resistant Nickel Alloys Seminar was held on 10-11 May 2012 in Shanghai, China, and in addition to the topic presented in AmeriTAC, Mr. Zhu Xiaofeng of Jiuli Hi Tech Metals gave a presentation titled “Overview of Chinese Nickel Alloy Supply for the High End Fabrication Industry”. 

Metals Who Makes What
Project “or”

This project started as a result of several MTI member companies having difficulty sourcing unusual alloys.  After discussion, it was suggested to start a live data base that would give MTI members an advantage in finding materials.  The committee is responsible for creating and maintaining a Master Metal Supplier Spreadsheet with current information.  However, the burden of submitting current information rests on the suppliers.